GUIDE VOLUME 1 :
Basic first aid refers to the initial process of assessing and addressing the needs of someone who has been injured or is in physiological distress due to choking, a heart attack, allergic reactions, drugs or other medical emergencies. Basic first aid allows you to quickly determine a person’s physical condition and the correct course of treatment. You should always seek professional medical help as soon as you are able, but following correct first aid procedures can be the difference between life and death.
METHOD 1: Performing the Three Cs
- If approaching the victim will endanger your life, seek professional help immediately; they have higher levels of training and know how to handle these situations. First aid becomes useless if you can’t safely perform it without hurting yourself.
2.Call for help: Call out for help 3 times before you begin assisting the casualty. If someone is with you or approaches, instruct them to call the authorities and be prepared to relay information to them so they can update the responders. It is not recommended that you leave the casualty unless absolutely required, but put them in the recovery position if you need to leave them for any reason.
METHOD 2:Caring for an Unconscious Person
- Keep the head and neck aligned.
- Carefully roll them onto their back while holding their head.
- Open the airway by lifting the chin.
- Airway. Does the person have an unobstructed airway?
- Breathing. Is the person breathing?
- Circulation. Does the person show a pulse at major pulse points (wrist, carotid artery, groin)?
6.Make sure the person is warm as you wait for medical help. Drape a towel or a blanket over the person if you have one; if you don’t, remove some of your own clothing (such as your coat or jacket) and use it as a cover until medical help arrives. However if the person has a heatstroke, do not cover him or keep him warm. Instead try to cool him by fanning him and damping him.
7.Pay attention to a list of don’ts. As you administer first aid, be sure to be aware of these things that you should not do in any case:
- Do not feed or hydrate an unconscious person. This could cause choking and possible asphyxiation.
- Do not leave the person alone. Unless you absolutely need to signal or call for help, stay with the person at all times.
- Do not prop up an unconscious person’s head with a pillow.
- Do not slap or splash with water an unconscious person’s face. These are movie gimmicks.
- If the person appears in danger due to an electric shock, you may attempt to move it, but only with a non-conductive object.
METHOD 3: Treating Common Problems In First Aid Scenarios
1.Protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens. Bloodborne pathogens can threaten your health and wellbeing by causing sickness and disease. If you have a first aid kit, sanitize your hands and put on sterile gloves. If sterile gloves and sanitizer are not available, protect your hands with extra gauze or cotton. Avoid direct contact with the other person’s blood. If you do end up making contact, make sure to clean yourself off as soon as possible. Eliminate any remaining sources of contamination.
2.Stop the bleeding first. After you have established that the victim is breathing and has a pulse, your next priority should be to control any bleeding. Control of bleeding is one of the most important things you can do to save a trauma victim. Use direct pressure on a wound before trying any other method of managing bleeding. Read the linked article for more detailed steps you can take.
- Treat a bullet wound. Bullet wounds are serious and unpredictable. Read on for special considerations when treating someone who has suffered a gunshot wound.
3.Treat shock next. Shock, often caused a loss of blood flow to the body, frequently follows physical and occasionally psychological trauma. A person in shock will frequently have cool, clammy skin, be agitated or have an altered mental status, and have pale color to the skin around the face and lips. Untreated, shock can be fatal. Anyone who has suffered a severe injury or life-threatening situation is at risk for shock.
- Immobilize the area. Make sure that the broken bone doesn’t have to move or support any other body parts.
- Numb the pain. Often, this can be done with an ice-pack covered by a towel.
- Make a splint. A bundle of newspapers and sturdy tape will do just the trick. A broken finger, for example, can also use another finger as a stabilizing splint.
- Make a sling, if necessary. Tie a shirt or a pillowcase around a broken arm and then around the shoulder.
5. Help a choking victim. Choking can cause death or permanent brain damage within minutes. Read this article for ways to help a choking victim. The article addresses helping both children and adult choking victims.
- One of the ways to help a choking victim is the Heimlich maneuver. The Heimlich maneuver is performed by straddling the victim from behind and bear-hugging them with your hands interlocked above their belly-button but beneath their breastbone. Thrust upward to expel air from the lungs and repeat until you are successful in clearing the object from the windpipe. IF THIS WORKS, THE PERSON WILL NEED TO VISIT THE HOSPITAL QUICKLY, INTERNAL BLEEDING CAN BE CAUSED WITH THIS METHOD.
6.Learn how to treat a burn. Treat first- and second-degree burns by immersing or flushing with cool water for at least 10 minutes (no ice). Don’t use creams, butter or other ointments, and do not pop blisters. Third degree burns should be covered with a damp cloth. Remove clothing and jewelry from the burn, but do not try to remove charred clothing that is stuck to burns.
7.Look out for a concussion. If the victim has suffered a blow to the head, look for signs of concussion. Common symptoms include:
8.Treat a Spinal Injury Victim. If you suspect a spinal injury, it is especially critical that you not move the victim’s head, neck or back unless they are in immediate danger. You also need to take special care when performing rescue breathing or CPR. Read this article to learn what to do.
- Loss of consciousness following the injury
- Disorientation or memory impairment
METHOD 4 : Treating Rarer Cases in First Aid Scenarios
- Clear the surroundings to protect the person from hurting themselves.
- Activate emergency medical services if the seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or if the person is not breathing afterwards.
- After the episode has ended, help them to the floor and and put something soft or flat under their head. Turn them onto their side to ease breathing, but do not hold the person down or try to stop their movements.
- Be friendly and reassuring as their consciousness returns and do not offer food or water until fully alert.
2.Help someone survive a heart attack. It helps to know the symptoms of heart attack, which include rapid heartbeat, pressure or pain in the chest, and general unease or nausea. Rush the person to the hospital immediately while giving them an aspirin or a nitroglycerin, which the person should chew.
3.Identify someone having a stroke. Again, knowing the symptoms of stroke is important. They include temporary inability to talk or understand what is being said; confusion; loss of balance or dizziness; and severe headache with no precursor, among others. Rush a person you suspect has had a stroke to the emergency room immediately.
4.Treat poisoning. Poisoning can occur as a result of natural toxins (i.e. snake bite) or chemical combinations. If an animal may be responsible for poisoning, try to (safely) kill it, bag it, and bring it with you to poison control.